What Is The DNS Protocol? How Does It Work?

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What Is The DNS Protocol


What Is The DNS Protocol? How Does It Work?

The Domain Name System (DNS Protocol) is one of the foundations of the Internet, yet most people outside networks don't realize that they use it daily to do their jobs, check their email, or spend time on their smartphones.

Simply, DNS is a directory of domain names that match IP numbers. In this case, the numbers are IP addresses, which computers use to communicate with each other.

Each device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address that other devices use to find the device. DNS eliminates the need for humans to memorize IP addresses such as (in IPv4) or more complex alphanumeric IP addresses such as 2400: cb00:2048:1::c629:d7a2 (in IPv6).

DNS Protocol
How Does The DNS Protocol Work?

The DNS resolution process involves converting the domain name (e.g., to a suitable IP address of the computer (e.g.,, where each device on the Internet is given an IP address. This address is necessary to find the appropriate Internet device or website - Like using a street address to find a specific house.

When a user wants to load a web page, a translation must occur between what the user types into their web browser ( and the familiar address of the device necessary to locate the web page.

To understand the process behind DNS resolution, it is essential to familiarize yourself with the various hardware components that a Domain Name System (DNS protocol) query must pass through. For a web browser, the DNS lookup is done "behind the scenes" and requires no interaction from the user's computer except for the initial request.

A domain name directory that matches names with numbers is not in one place on the Internet; with over 332 million domain names listed at the end of 2017, a single DNS directory would already be extensive, the directory is distributed all over the world, and it is stored on domain name servers (commonly referred to as DNS servers) that all communicate with each other on a very regular basis to provide updates and redundancy.

DNS Servers
Trusted DNS Servers & Recursive DNS Servers

When your computer wants to find the IP address associated with a domain name, it first requests a recursive DNS server, also known as a recursive resolver. Other DNS servers need to ask to resolve a site's name to its IP address; servers that contain the requested information are called official DNS servers.

DNS Servers And IP Addresses

Each domain can correspond to more than one IP address; some sites have hundreds or more IP addresses that correspond to a single domain name; for example, the server that your computer accesses is likely to be is quite different from a server that someone in another country might access by typing the same site name in their browser.

Another reason for the distributed nature of a directory is the amount of time it would take to get a response when searching for a site if there was only one directory site shared among millions, possibly billions of people also searching for information simultaneously.

DNS Caching
What Is DNS Caching?

To work around this issue, DNS information is shared between many servers. But information about recently visited sites is also cached locally on client computers.

You probably use several times a day; instead of your computer querying the DNS name server for the IP address of each time, this information is saved on your computer so that it doesn't have to access the DNS server for name resolution with its IP address.

Additional caching can occur on the routers used to connect clients to the Internet and on the servers of the user's Internet Service Provider (ISP); with so much caching, the number of queries reaching the DNS name servers is much less than it appears.

How Do I Find My DNS Server?
How Do I Find My DNS Server?

In general, the DNS server you use will be automatically created by your network provider when you connect to the Internet; if you want to know which servers are the primary domain servers - generally a recursive resolver, as described above - there are web utilities that can provide a range of information About the current network connection. is a good site and offers much information, including existing DNS servers.

Can I Use DNS?
Can I Use DNS?

It is essential to keep in mind that although your ISP will set a DNS server by default, you are not obligated to use it; some users may have a reason to avoid the ISP's DNS protocol - for example, some ISPs use servers their DNS is to redirect requests for non-existent addresses to pages with ads.

If you want an alternative, you can point your computer to a public DNS server that acts as a recursive resolver. Google is one of the most prominent public DNS servers; Its IP address is

Google's DNS services tend to be fast, and while there are some questions about Google's ulterior motives for offering the free service, they can only get information from you that they already got from Chrome. Google has a page with detailed instructions on configuring your computer or router to connect to Google's DNS protocol.

What is meant by "Dyn"?
What is meant by "Dyn"?

Dyn is the name of a company that provides domain name system (DNS Protocol) management services and internet performance and security solutions. Dyn also offers marketing services, web analytics, and internet security services. Dyn is specifically used to refer to the DNS management services provided by the company.

How does the domain name system work?

The domain name system (DNS) is a system that allows users to find websites on the Internet using easy-to-understand names instead of complex IP addresses. The DNS system consists of several essential components that convert the website's name into its corresponding IP address. The main features of the DNS system are:

  1. Browser: The user starts typing the website's address into their web browser.
  2. Root Server: The browser searches for the nearest root server, which is a group of servers located all around the world.
  3. TLD Server: The query is sent from the root server to the TLD (top-level domain) server responsible for the website's extension, such as .com or .org.
  4. Domain Server: The query is sent from the TLD server to the domain server responsible for the requested website.
  5. Host Server: The query is then sent from the domain server to the host server that contains the website's files and returns the response to the user.

This information is stored in distributed databases on many servers worldwide and is constantly updated to ensure the accuracy and speed of the search. This way, users are quickly and accurately directed to the correct website using easy-to-understand names instead of complex IP addresses.

How is the domain name system used in enterprise environments?

The DNS protocol is widely used in enterprises for several purposes, including:

  • Domain name management: DNS is used in enterprises to manage domain names and direct traffic on the network to different websites.
  • Email: DNS is used in enterprises to set up email servers and direct email traffic.
  • Internal services: DNS is used in enterprises to direct traffic on the internal network and identify the locations of different servers and devices.
  • Security: DNS is used in enterprises to protect and access official websites and prevent access to harmful websites.
  • Cloud solutions: DNS is used in enterprises to manage cloud solutions and direct traffic to cloud servers.
  • Analytics and statistics: DNS is used in enterprises to gather data, analytics, and statistics about network traffic.

Some common questions
Some common questions

What is the function of the DNS protocol?

DNS stands for Domain Name System and is a protocol that allows users to find websites on the Internet using easily understandable names instead of complex IP addresses.

The function of the DNS protocol is to convert the website's textual name into its corresponding IP address. This is done using DNS servers worldwide that contain databases linking domain names to their associated IP addresses.

When a user enters a website address in their browser, the request is sent to their local DNS server, which searches its local database for the matching address. If the appropriate address is not found, the request is sent to a higher-level DNS server with more information, redirecting the request to the final DNS server containing the correct address.

This way, the desired website's IP address is determined, and the user is directed to the requested page. This process helps to facilitate efficient and accurate access to websites and navigation between them.

What are the types of DNS?

There are several types of DNS protocols, including:

  1. Public DNS: this is provided by private companies such as Google, Cloudflare, OpenDNS, and others. Public DNS is used to speed up traffic and improve Internet security.
  2. Private DNS: this is used within private networks in institutions and companies. Private DNS is configured to specify internal domain names and their associated IP addresses.
  3. Ad-blocking DNS: This prevents unwanted ads and malware from accessing the network.
  4. Security DNS: this type of DNS protocol is used to improve Internet security and prevent access to malicious websites and malware.
  5. Dynamic DNS: this is used to constantly update IP addresses and is often used in home networks that use fixed communication services.
  6. Distributed governance DNS: which uses blockchain technology to improve security and privacy on the Internet and is currently in the experimental stage.

Each type of DNS protocol is used for different purposes, and their configuration and usage vary depending on the style.

How are DNS names resolved on the Internet?

When a user enters a website address in their web browser, the associated address is searched using the Domain Name System protocol (DNS). DNS names are usually resolved on the Internet through the following steps:

  1. The user enters the website address in their web browser.
  2. The web browser sends a request to the local DNS server containing a local domain name database.
  3. If the required address is found in the local database, it is returned to the web browser, and the website is loaded.
  4. If the required address is not found in the local database, the request is sent to a higher-level DNS server with more information.
  5. Steps 3 and 4 are repeated until the required address is found in a DNS server's database.
  6. Once the IP address associated with the website is found, it is returned to the web browser, and the website is loaded.

The speed of DNS name resolution on the Internet varies depending on several factors, such as the speed of the local DNS server, the performance of the network, and the speed of the upper-level DNS servers. It is essential to regularly update DNS databases to avoid security issues and improve Internet connectivity.

What is the difference between DNS and DHCP?

DNS and DHCP are different protocols used in managing and distributing IP addresses on networks, and they differ in their functions.

DNS (Domain Name System) is a protocol to convert domain names into IP addresses. It directs user requests to the correct servers and determines the appropriate IP address for the websites they want to access. DNS is essential to the Internet and is used whenever a website is accessed.

On the other hand, DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol used to distribute IP addresses to devices connected to the network. It automatically provides an IP address to network devices and distributes other network settings such as the default gateway, DNS addresses, and more. DHCP helps facilitate network management and improve internet connection security.

DNS is generally used to look up IP addresses associated with domain names, while DHCP distributes IP addresses to network devices. Together, they work to improve internet connection performance and facilitate network management.

Does DNS affect internet speed?

Yes, the Domain Name System (DNS) directly affects internet speed. When a user accesses a website, a request is sent to a DNS server to determine the IP address associated with the website. If the DNS server responds quickly, the website will load faster. Factors that can affect the speed of the DNS system on the Internet include:

  1. DNS server speed: Websites will load faster if the DNS server has a fast response time. If the DNS server is slow to respond, it may cause websites to load slowly.
  2. Geographic distance: If the DNS server is geographically far from the user, it may be slow to respond and cause websites to load slowly.
  3. Large database size: If the DNS database is vast and complex, searching it may take longer and cause websites to load slowly.

For this reason, using fast and reliable DNS servers is essential for improving internet speed. Public high-performance DNS servers such as Google Public DNS and OpenDNS can also be used to improve internet speed.

How do I change DNS on Android?

You can change DNS protocol settings on Android using the following steps:

  1. Go to device settings.
  2. Click on "Networks & Connections" and then "Wi-Fi."
  3. Click on the network name you want to change the DNS settings for.
  4. Click on "Show Advanced Options."
  5. Click "IP Settings" and change the option from DHCP to Static.
  6. Select "DNS 1" and enter the new DNS server address ( for Google Public DNS).
  7. Enter an additional DNS server address in the "DNS 2" field.
  8. Click on "Save" to save the new settings.

After that, the new DNS protocol settings should be updated on the device and applied to the appropriate network. You can check the new DNS protocol settings by going to a testing website such as "What's My DNS" or "DNS Leak Test" to ensure the new DNS server works correctly.

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